Investigation of antioxidant capacity, bioaccessibility and LC-MS/MS phenolic profile of Turkish propolis

Tugba Ozdal*, Fatma Duygu Ceylan, Nazife Eroglu, Muammer Kaplan, Elmas Oktem Olgun, Esra Capanoglu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


Propolis is a resinous bee hive product that has many biological activities. In this study, a total of 11 raw propolis samples were collected from various geographical areas in Turkey. Phenolic compounds were extracted from all samples and analyses of total phenolics and flavonoids and total antioxidant capacities were performed. All the samples showed high total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities. Moreover, the in vitro bioaccessibility of Turkish propolis samples were investigated according to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method. Bioaccessibility was increased through the gastric and intestinal phases. Furthermore, the composition of polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) in Turkish propolis extracts was investigated by LC-MS/MS method. A total of 32 phenolic compounds, including Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) which was observed in all samples, were identified in the samples. Higher CAPE contents were determined in the samples from the Marmara region which is in line with its higher antioxidant capacity values. As a conclusion, propolis samples collected from different geographical locations differ for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, individual phenolic profile and bioaccessibility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-536
Number of pages9
JournalFood Research International
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd


This study was fully supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) , BIDEB-2232 Project No: 113C036 , Institution Code: 5134103 under the name of “Investigation of important honeybee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae), subspecies and ecotypes in Turkey considering propolis collection capacity and chemical characterization of Turkish propolis.

FundersFunder number
TÜBİTAKBIDEB-2232, 5134103, 113C036
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu


    • Antioxidant capacity
    • Bioaccessibility
    • In vitro gastrointestinal digestion
    • LC-MS/MS
    • Phenolic compounds
    • Propolis


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