Influence of pore density on thermal development in open-cell metal foam

Altay Arbak, Nihad Dukhan*, Özer Bağcı, Mustafa Özdemir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Herein heat transfer measurements due to water flow in commercial open-cell aluminum foam confined by a cylindrical shell, which was heated by a constant heat flux, are described. Two kinds of commercial foam were tested: 10 and 40 pores per inch (ppi). Measurements included wall temperature along flow direction as well as average inlet and outlet temperatures of water. Flow rates ranged from Darcy to Forchheimer regimes. The wall temperature along the foam, as well as the local Nusselt number lucidly displayed thermal entry effects leading to thermal fully-developed conditions. The thermal entry length was about 2.9 pipe diameters (150 mm) for 10-ppi and 2.4 pipe diameters (122 mm) for 40-ppi foam; these were same for Darcy and Forchheimer flow regimes. It can be stated that the thermal entry length in open-cell metal foam was found to be significant and different from its porous-media analytically-predicted values and behavior. Moreover, the thermal entry length in metal foam was found to inversely proportional to the pores density but in a weak manner.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-188
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Inc.


This work was supported by the Scientific & Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) under program 1002: 214M267, for which the authors are very thankful.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu214M267


    • Convection
    • Fully developed
    • Metal foam
    • Thermal development
    • Thermal entry length


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