In-situ synthesis of graphene encapsulated Fe/Fe2O3nanoparticles for possible biomedical applications

Siddika Mertdinç-Ülküseven, Umut Savaci, Kubra Onbasli, Özge Balci-Çagiran, Havva Yagci Acar, M. Lütfi Öveçoglu, Duygu Agaogullari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on the in-situ synthesis, optimization, characterization and cytotoxicity tests of multi-layer graphene (MLG) encapsulated Fe/Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Fe/Fe2O3@C core-shell nanostructures) by spray drying-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using iron-nitrate/silica-based precursors. The influences of CVD reaction temperature, holding time, CH4/H2 gas flows and pressure on the synthesis of MLG encapsulated Fe/Fe2O3 nanoparticles were investigated. CVD-synthesized powders were purified using acid leaching to remove residual silica and probable uncoated Fe/Fe-oxide phases. XRD analyses revealed the presence of FCC (Fe,C), BCC Fe, graphite/graphene and trace amount of Fe2O3 phases. Raman spectra confirmed the existence of MLG shells. TEM indicated that MLG (from at least 3 to maximum of 35 layers) wrapped around the metallic cores ranged between 4 and 85 nm. Purification of nanoparticles did not degrade, dissolve or create discontinuity on the MLG structure. VSM measurements showed that nanoparticles obtained from the optimized conditions (900 °C, 100 ml/min CH4/H2, 50 mbar) had a soft ferromagnetic behavior with low saturation magnetization (∼85 emu/g) and coercivity (∼552 Oe) values. Optimized MLG encapsulated Fe/Fe2O3 nanoparticles were successfully suspended in water using a poly(acrylic acid) coating. Aqueous MLG encapsulated Fe/Fe2O3 nanoparticles were cytocompatible below 100 μg/ml at short incubation times, and showed the potential to be used in biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2558-2577
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s).


This study was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Türkiye (TUBITAK), Türkiye [grant number: 118F430 ]. This study was also partially financed by Istanbul Technical University Scientific Research Projects (ITU-BAP), Türkiye [grant number: MDK-2019-41863 ]. Authors would like to thank to Sedat Kurnaz from Kastamonu University for VSM analyses. Also, the authors are grateful to Prof. Dr. C. Bora Derin and M.Sc. Faruk Kaya for FactSage calculations. The authors thank Dr. Gülsu Şimşek Franci from KUYTAM for her help in Raman analyses and M.Sc. Müjde Yahyaoğlu from KUBAM for her help in DTA/TG analyses.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu118F430
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi
Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi, İstanbul Teknik ÜniversitesiMDK-2019-41863


    • Chemical vapor deposition
    • Core-shell nanoparticles
    • Cytotoxicity tests
    • Graphene encapsulation
    • Magnetic properties
    • Microstructural characterization


    Dive into the research topics of 'In-situ synthesis of graphene encapsulated Fe/Fe2O3nanoparticles for possible biomedical applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this