Implementation of 3D spatial planning through the integration of the standards

Dogus Guler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


To plan future land use, zoning plans (i.e., spatial plans) are prepared to get the most out of land for both the public and the government. These plans manifest which facilities can be built and where they can be built on land based on defined requirements such as building height and road length. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is well-known and widely used standard for describing Rights, Restrictions, and Responsibilities (RRRs) with respect to land and buildings. The next version of the standard will contain the Spatial Plan Information (SPI) part to enable better land-use planning. Three-dimensional (3D) land-use planning has gained attention to delineate detailed requirements inclusively and allow different spatial analysis that provides a basis for decisions in the planning. Data standards pertaining to 3D geoinformation are vital to put into practice 3D spatial planning. To this extent, CityJSON is proposed for the effortless and efficient use of 3D city models. This article thus first aims to extend the CityJSON schema based on the proposed SPI part of the LADM such that it allows modeling, storing, visualizing, and utilizing the features and attributes required for the implementation of 3D spatial planning. Then, the usability of the proposed extension schema is demonstrated by the real-world use cases that benefit from the exemplary CityJSON files that are created based on approved zoning plans in the country. The results of this study show that there is an important opportunity coming from the integration of international standards that enables semantic information along with their spatial counterparts within 3D spatial planning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2252-2277
Number of pages26
JournalTransactions in GIS
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Transactions in GIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


This study is supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Türkiye (TUBITAK) 1001 Project (Project Number: 122Y325). I would like to dedicate this article to T.G. and D.C.G.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu122Y325


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