Impact of Multi-Grade Localized Calcifications on Aortic Valve Dynamics under Helical Inflow: A Comparative Hemodynamic Study

Reza Daryani, Emre Cenk Ersan, Mustafa Serdar Çelebi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigates the hemodynamic impacts of localized aortic valve calcification, utilizing immersed boundary-finite element (IBFE) method simulations with realistic inflow patterns of uniform and helical blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). We modeled the aortic valve leaflets with varying grades of calcification, assessing their influence on valve performance, including transvalvular hemodynamics, wall shear stress (WSS) indices, and vortical structures. The findings highlighted that calcification significantly restricts leaflet motion, diminishes the orifice area, disrupts flow efficiency, and consequently increases the left ventricular workload. Advanced calcification resulted in elevated WSS, especially at the leaflet tips, which indicates a heightened risk of endothelial damage and further calcification. Asymmetrical calcifications redirect flow towards the ascending aorta wall, potentially inducing structural damage and increased stress on the remaining healthy leaflets. Calcification was also found to alter the naturally occurring helical blood flow patterns, affecting the system’s fluid transport efficiency and possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease progression. The study revealed a significant alteration in vortex formation, with calcification causing distorted and complex vortex structures, which may influence the dynamics of blood flow and valve function. These insights into the hemodynamic changes induced by calcification contribute to a better understanding of the progression of aortic valve diseases and could inform more effective diagnostic and treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12983
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume13
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • aortic valve stenosis
  • calcification
  • FSI simulation
  • helical flow
  • localized calcification patterns
  • realistic boundary conditions
  • transvalvular indices
  • wall shear stress (WSS)

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