G-Puzzle: Infilling 3D Models With Reinforced G-Lattices

Arash Armanfar*, Ersan Ustundag, Erkan Gunpinar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


G-Lattices (proposed by Armanfar and Gunpinar) are a group of novel periodic and strut-based lattice structures for additive manufacturing. It has been demonstrated that these structures have superior mechanical properties under compression compared to conventional lattice structures. This paper introduces an extension of G-Lattices (i.e., reinforced G-Lattices) that also have better mechanical performance under inclined (compression) loading conditions. For different inclined loads, separate reinforced G-Lattices are first optimized, and a G-Lattice library is formed. For a part under loading, displacement vectors in each unit cell (cubic domains within the inner region of the part) are then extracted. Based on these vectors, (pre-optimized) reinforced G-Lattices are selected from the G-Lattice library and utilized (as infills) in the unit cells. This process is called G-Puzzling. As a proof of concept, parts under three different inclined loading conditions are infilled using reinforced G-Lattices and investigated based on stiffness-over-volume ratios. According to these experiments, the resulting parts, on average, exhibit more than 30% better mechanical performance compared to FBCCZ (a conventional lattice structure).

Original languageEnglish
Article number101702
JournalJournal of Mechanical Design
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). All rights reserved.


  • design automation
  • design optimization
  • design process
  • design theory


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