First results from ITU-Dynasonde, Istanbul, Turkey on the ionospheric characteristics

Ayşegül Ceren Moral, Zerefşan Kaymaz*, Emine Ceren Kalafatoglu Eyigüler, Nikolay Zabotin, Robert Livingston

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Observations of the ionosphere over Istanbul, Turkey have been made using an ionosonde installed at the Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Maslak campus. In this paper, we present average diurnal, monthly, seasonal, and noon-midnight statistics of key F2 layer parameters observed over a one-year period. Those parameters are the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), its peak height (hmF2), and the estimated total electron content (TEC). The data show that the overall average behavior at Istanbul is consistent with the findings of other studies of the mid-latitude ionosphere. Also presented are the results of a close look at the diurnal variations of F2 layer. Categorizing these variations provides suggestions about the possible causes or drivers that affect the Eurasian ionosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2537-2555
Number of pages19
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 COSPAR


This work has been supported by TÜBİTAK 113Y213 . It was also partially supported by Research Program (BAP) of Istanbul Technical University (ITU) , No=36514. We would like to acknowledge the ITU-Rectorate for their support while establishing the Dynasonde system in ITU campus and for its maintenance. Also we would like to thank Dr. Filiz Türk Katırcıoğlu and Dr. Terry Bullet for their help and encouragement during the initial stages of the installation of the system within the campus. This work was also partially supported by NSF , USA grant 1643119 .

FundersFunder number
National Science Foundation1643119
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi=36514


    • Dynasonde
    • F2 layer critical frequency
    • Ionosphere
    • Ionospheric anomalies
    • Mid-latitudes


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