Finite element simulation and failure analysis of fixed bollard system according to the PAS 68:2013 standard

Mustafa Yurdabal Apak*, Murat Ergun, Halit Ozen, Murat Buyuk, Sedat Ozcanan, Ali Osman Atahan, Halil Ibrahim Yumrutas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Fixed bollards are very significant elements in providing urban roadside safety. These structures, called passive systems, allow pedestrians and disabled people to use sidewalks effectively and safely, as well as they have a crucial role in protecting the above-ground assets of infrastructure facilities against run-off-road (ROR) crashes. In this study, structural and safety performance analyses of fixed bollards that protect natural gas above ground Reducing and Metering Station-B (RMS-B) type regulating stations used in many points in Istanbul were made. In this regard, finite element (FE) models of the steel pipe of the fixed bollard, the concrete of the foundation and the soil where the bollard was mounted were created. Existing fixed bollards have been verified with accident data. In the light of the calibration and validation, numerical models were created and combined with the vehicle models specified in PAS 68:2013 standard to simulate dynamic behaviours. The combined FE models were analysed applying LS-DYNA software. As a result of the numerical analysis, the fixed bollard system cannot safely stop the 30000 kg N3, 18000 kg N3 and 7500 kg N2 class vehicles, and cannot prevent them from damaging the RMS-B. Besides, the fixed bollard system cannot provide safety at the speed level of 48 km/h, considering the urban speed limit for 3500 kg N1 and 2500 kg N1G class vehicles. However, the fixed bollard system can safely stop 1500 kg and 900 kg M1 class vehicles up to 64 km/h speed limit. These analyses revealed that considering the regional traffic characteristics of Istanbul, the existing fixed bollard systems are not sufficient for the protection of hazardous roadside facilities and need to be improved. Full-scale crash tests should be carried out in future studies to validate the FE simulation models. Furthermore, various bollard designs should be developed, especially urban road requirements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106151
JournalEngineering Failure Analysis
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors would like to thank the Istanbul Gas Distribution Industry and Trade Incorporated Company (IGDAS), R&D Department, for their technical support of this study.

FundersFunder number
Istanbul Gas Distribution Industry and Trade Incorporated Company


    • Bollard system
    • Failure analysis
    • Finite element analysis
    • LS-DYNA
    • PAS 68:2013
    • Roadside safety


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