Exposure assessment of climate extremes over the Europe–mediterranean region

Mehmet Barış Kelebek, Fulden Batibeniz, Barış Önol*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The use of a compact set of climate change indexes enhances our understanding of the combined impacts of extreme climatic conditions. In this study, we developed the modified Climate Extremes Index (mCEI) to obtain unified information about different types of extremes. For this purpose, we calculated 10 different climate change indexes considering the temperature extremes, extreme precipitation, and moisture surplus and drought over the Europe–Mediterranean (EURO– MED) region for the 1979–2016 period. As a holistic approach, mCEI provides spatiotemporal information, and the high-resolution grid-based data allow us to accomplish detailed country-based and city-based analyses. The analyses indicate that warm temperature extremes rise significantly over the EURO–MED region at a rate of 1.9% decade−1, whereas the cold temperature extremes decrease. Extreme drought has a significant increasing trend of 3.8% decade−1 . Although there are regional differences, extreme precipitation indexes have a significant increasing tendency. According to the mCEI, the major hotspots for the combined extremes are the Mediterranean coasts, the Balkan countries, Eastern Europe, Iceland, western Russia, western Turkey, and western Iraq. The decadal changes of mCEI for these regions are in the range of 3–5% decade−1 . The city-scale analysis based on urbanized locations reveals that Fes (Morocco), Izmir (Turkey), Marseille and Aix-en-Provence (France), and Tel Aviv (Israel) have the highest increasing trend of mCEI, which is greater than 3.5% decade−1 .

Original languageEnglish
Article number633
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Funding: This study is partially funded by the Scientific Research Projects of Istanbul Technical University, Research Grant ID MGA-2018-41536.

FundersFunder number
Istanbul Teknik ÜniversitesiMGA-2018-41536


    • Climate change indexes
    • Combined climate extremes
    • Europe–Mediterranean region
    • Urban areas


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