Estimation of shipping emissions in Candarli Gulf, Turkey

Cengiz Deniz*, Alper Kilic, Gökhan Cıvkaroglu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


Ships are significant air pollution sources as their high powered main engines often use heavy fuels. The major atmospheric components emitted are nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxide gases, carbon oxides, and toxic air pollutants. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. Candarli Gulf is one of the major industrial regions on the Aegean side of Turkey. The marine environment of the region is affected by emissions from ships calling to ten different ports. In this study, NO x , SO 2 , CO 2 , hydrocarbons (HC), and PM emissions from 7,520 ships are estimated during the year of 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. Annual shipping emissions are estimated as 631.2 t year -1 for NO x , 573.6 t year -1 for SO 2 , 33,848.9 t year -1 for CO 2 , 32.3 t year -1 for HC, and 57.4 t year -1 for PM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-228
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010


  • Air pollution
  • Candarli Gulf
  • Emission
  • Exhaust
  • Port
  • Ship


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