Estimation of measured evapotranspiration using data-driven methods with limited meteorological variables

Eyyup Ensar Başakın*, Ömer Ekmekcioğlu, Mehmet Özger, Nilcan Altınbaş, Levent Şaylan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Determination of surface energy balance depends on the energy exchange between land and atmosphere. Thus, crop, soil and meteorological factors are crucial, particularly in agricultural fields. Evapotranspiration is derived from latent heat component of surface energy balance and is a key factor to clarify the energy transfer mechanism. Development of the methods and technologies for the aim of determining and measuring of evapotranspiration have been one of the main focus points for researchers. However, the direct measurement systems are not common because of economic reasons. This situation causes that different methods are used to estimate evapotranspiration, particularly in locations where no measurements are made. Thus, in this study, non-linear techniques were applied to make accurate estimations of evapotranspiration over the winter wheat canopy located in the field of Atatürk Soil Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Institute Directorate, Kırklareli, Turkey. This is the first attempt in the literature which consist of the comparison of different machine learning methods in the evapotranspiration values obtained by the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance system. In order to accomplish this aim, support-vector machine, Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and Artificial neural network models have been evaluated for different input combinations. The results revealed that even with only global solar radiation data taken as an input, a high prediction accuracy can be achieved. These results are particularly advantageous in cases where the measurement of meteorological variables is limited. With the results of this study, progress can be made in the efficient use and management of water resources based on the input parameters of evapotranspiration especially for regions with limited data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-80
Number of pages18
JournalItalian Journal of Agrometeorology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 E.E. Başakın, Ö. Ekmekcİoğlu, M. Özger, N. Altınbaş, L. Şaylan.


The data used in this study was obtained from the project (109R006) supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). Therefore, we would like to thank TÜBİTAK for finan-

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu


    • Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system
    • Artificial neural network
    • Bowen ratio energy balance
    • Winter wheat


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