Environmental sensitivity of printed circuit board manufacturing to Cu recycling rate, transportation and various energy sources

Elif Ozkan, Bilge Bas, Nilay Elginoz, Fatos Germirli Babuna*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study concentrates on environmental impacts of PCB manufacturing. The objective is to examine the effect of Cu recycling rate, transportation, energy sources and end-of-life (EoL) on global warming potential (GWP), marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential (MAEP), terrestric ecotoxicity potential (TETP), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity potential (FAETP), human toxicity potential (HTP), ozone layer depletion (ODP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP) and abiotic depletion potential (ADP fossil, ADP elements) potentials. Increasing Cu recycling rate from 30% to 47%, reduce the impacts by 10 to 103%. The most significant reduction is for HTP. Transportation elevates AP and POCP by 29%, ADP fossil by 23% and GWP by 21%. Obtaining energy from renewable sources causes 56, 40 and 39% reductions in HTP, ADP fossil and GWP, namely. Apart from GWP where PCB manufacturing and EoL has equal impacts, for the other categories PCB manufacturing has more than 75% contribution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-248
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Global Warming
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Fatos Germirli Babuna has 35 years experience in the field of Environmental Engineering. She received her BSc in Chemical Engineering (Bogazici University), MSc and PhD in Environmental Engineering (Istanbul Technical University. From 1990 to 1992, she was a Postdoctoral Researcher at ENEA, Bologna, Italy, by the grant received from the Italian Government. Between 2002–2004, she was the Chair of ITU Environmental Engineering Department. In 1999, she received an incentive award in engineering branch from the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). She has published an international book and over 90 scientific papers and received more than 1,400 citations.

FundersFunder number
Italian Government
European Neuroendocrine Association


    • Cu recycling
    • Electronics industry
    • Energy source
    • Life cycle assessment
    • Manufacturing
    • PCB
    • Printed circuit board
    • Transportation


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