Enhanced production of gamma-aminobutyric acid in fermented carrot juice by utilizing pectin hydrolysate derived from pomegranate waste

Dilara Devecioglu, Didem Kara, Rabia Tapan, Funda Karbancioglu-Guler, Derya Kahveci*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, a functional fermented beverage enriched with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was produced. To achieve this, the prebiotic abilities of pectin obtained from pomegranate peel and its enzymatic hydrolysates were evaluated. Additionally, a functional fermented beverage enriched with GABA was produced by fermenting carrot juice with pectin hydrolysates. First, pectin was obtained at a yield of 8.91% from pomegranate peels. Pectinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the obtained pectin was applied using different enzyme concentrations and hydrolysis times, and the effect of these hydrolysates on the growth of Levilactobacillus brevis was determined. Although the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the resulting hydrolysates were similar, their degree of esterification compared to that of pectin was statistically different (p <.05). Considering the viability analysis and GABA production of L. brevis in the liquid medium supplemented with pectin or its hydrolysate, the hydrolysate obtained by treatment with 400 μL enzyme for 2 h and having a high glucose content (216.80 mg/100 g) was selected for application in fermented carrot juice. During fermentation (24, 48, and 72 h), a remarkable change was observed, especially in the amounts of lactic acid and malic acid, while the amount of GABA in carrot juice varied between 25 and 46 mg/mL and increased with the increase in hydrolysate concentration. It was observed that the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carrot juice were highly affected by the hydrolysate concentration. This study demonstrated that pectin hydrolysate obtained from food waste could be a potential prebiotic and could be used in the production of a functional beverage with improved GABA content.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFood Science and Nutrition
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s). Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


  • fermented carrot juice
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid
  • Levilactobacillus brevis
  • pectin hydrolysate
  • prebiotic


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