Enhanced benzene vapor adsorption through microwave-assisted fabrication of activated carbon from peanut shells using ZnCl2 as an activating agent

Sinan Kutluay, Ömer Şahin, Orhan Baytar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Herein, microwave-assisted activated carbon (MW-AC) was fabricated from peanut shells using a ZnCl2 activator and utilized for the first time to eliminate benzene vapor as a volatile organic compound (VOC). During the MW-AC production process, which involved two steps—microwave treatment and muffle furnace heating—we investigated the effects of various factors and achieved the highest iodine number of 1250 mg/g. This was achieved under optimal operating conditions, which included a 100% impregnation ratio, CO2 as the gas in the microwave environment, a microwave power set at 500 W, a microwave duration of 10 min, an activation temperature of 500 °C and an activation time of 45 min. The structural and morphological properties of the optimized MW-AC were assessed through SEM, FTIR, and BET analysis. The dynamic adsorption process of benzene on the optimized MW-AC adsorbent, which has a significant BET surface area of 1204.90 m2/g, was designed using the Box-Behnken approach within the response surface methodology. Under optimal experimental conditions, including a contact duration of 80 min, an inlet concentration of 18 ppm, and a temperature of 26 °C, the maximum adsorption capacity reached was 568.34 mg/g. The experimental data are better described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, while it is concluded that the equilibrium data are better described by the Langmuir isotherm model. MW-AC exhibited a reuse efficiency of 86.54% for benzene vapor after five consecutive recycling processes. The motivation of the study highlights the high adsorption capacity and superior reuse efficiency of MW-AC adsorbent with high BET surface area against benzene pollutant. According to our results, the developed MW-AC presents itself as a promising adsorbent candidate for the treatment of VOCs in various industrial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27935-27948
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


  • Benzene adsorption
  • Experimental design
  • Isotherms
  • Kinetics
  • Microwave-assisted activated carbon


Dive into the research topics of 'Enhanced benzene vapor adsorption through microwave-assisted fabrication of activated carbon from peanut shells using ZnCl2 as an activating agent'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this