Encapsulation of Probiotics within Double/Multiple Layer Beads/Carriers: A Concise Review

Sofia Agriopoulou, Slim Smaoui, Moufida Chaari, Theodoros Varzakas*, Asli Can Karaca, Seid Mahdi Jafari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


An increased demand for natural products nowadays most specifically probiotics (PROs) is evident since it comes in conjunction with beneficial health effects for consumers. In this regard, it is well known that encapsulation could positively affect the PROs’ viability throughout food manufacturing and long-term storage. This paper aims to analyze and review various double/multilayer strategies for encapsulation of PROs. Double-layer encapsulation of PROs by electrohydrodynamic atomization or electrospraying technology has been reported along with layer-by-layer assembly and water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsions to produce multilayer PROs-loaded carriers. Finally, their applications in food products are presented. The resistance and viability of loaded PROs to mechanical damage, during gastrointestinal transit and shelf life of these trapping systems, are also described. The PROs encapsulation in double- and multiple-layer coatings combined with other technologies can be examined to increase the opportunities for new functional products with amended functionalities opening a novel horizon in food technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2431
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • double/multiple layer coatings
  • encapsulation
  • functional food products
  • probiotics


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