Electrocoagulation as a promising defluoridation technology from water: A review of state of the art of removal mechanisms and performance trends

Milad Mousazadeh, S. M. Alizadeh, Zacharias Frontistis, Işık Kabdaşlı, Elnaz Karamati Niaragh, Zakaria Al Qodah, Zohreh Naghdali, Alaa El Din Mahmoud, Miguel A. Sandoval, Erick Butler, Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


Fluoride ions present in drinking water are beneficial to human health when at proper concentration levels (0.5-1.5 mg L-1), but an excess intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg L-1) may pose several health problems. In this context, reducing high fluoride concentrations in water is a major worldwide challenge. The World Health Organization has recommended setting a permissible limit of 1.5 mg L-1. The application of electrocoagulation (EC) processes has received widespread and increasing attention as a promising treatment technology and a competitive treatment for fluoride control. EC technology has been favourably applied due to its economic effectiveness, environmental versatility, amenability of automation, and low sludge production. This review provides more detailed information on fluoride removal from water by the EC process, including operating parameters, removal mechanisms, energy consumption, and operating costs. Additionally, it also focuses attention on future trends related to improve defluoridation efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Article number656
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


The support of the Research Vice-Chancellor of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (IR.QUMS.REC.1399.472) is wholeheartedly appreciated. Milad Mousazadeh gratitudes the Iran’s National Elites Foundation (INEF) for granting the Elite Soldier Award, No. 15/11529. Miguel A. Sandoval is grateful to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Mexico (CONACYT) for granting the postdoctoral scholarship, No. 386022. A.E.D Mahmoud would like to thank “Green Technology Group”.

FundersFunder number
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología386022
Iran's National Elites Foundation15/11529
Qazvin University of Medical SciencesIR.QUMS.REC.1399.472


    • Electrocoagulation
    • Fluoride removal
    • Groundwater treatment
    • Water treatment


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