Effects of land-use mitigation scenarios on urban heat island intensity in Istanbul

Deniz H. Diren-Üstün, Yurdanur S. Ünal, Simge İrem Bilgen, Cemre Yürük Sonuç*, Sahar Sodoudi, Caner Güney, Ahmet Özgür Doğru, Selahattin İncecik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This is the first comprehensive study to examine how urbanization affects the microclimate of Istanbul using the urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 with a 200 m horizontal resolution. In this study, the parameters in the land use table were estimated for Istanbul by combining different land use data sets and creating a high-resolution land use distribution. A specified heat wave episode was simulated via MUKLIMO_3 by using defined land use, meteorological sounding, and surface measurements. The findings suggest that MUKLIMO_3 can reasonably capture the 24-h daily temperature variation in both rural and urban locations, but it has a negative bias compared to station observations. We also employ eight mitigation scenarios by changing the albedo of roofs and implementing green-roofs and walls. All scenarios reduced air temperatures to varying degrees in urbanized areas along the northern Marmara coastline on both sides of Istanbul during daylight hours. The white and hybrid scenarios resulted in a temperature drop of up to 2 K at 12:00 UTC, with the most significant cooling effect observed in hybrid 4. Increasing the albedo of roofs from 0.5 to 0.7 resulted in the spatial expansion of cooled areas towards the north of the city along the Bosphorus. However, green roof scenarios are not found to be as effective as high-albedo scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107083
JournalAtmospheric Research
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


The project leading to this publication has received support from the TÜBİTAK project grant number 114Y047 and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no 266603 ERAfrica LOCLIM3 project.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu114Y047
Seventh Framework Programme266603 ERAfrica LOCLIM3


    • Istanbul
    • Land use change
    • Mitigation scenarios
    • MUKLIMO_3
    • Urban climate model
    • Urban heat island


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