Discrete-time backstepping control with nonlinear adaptive disturbance attenuation for the inverted-pendulum system

Fatih Adıgüzel, Yaprak Yalçın*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


A discrete-time backstepping controller with an active disturbance attenuation property for the Inverted-Pendulum system is constructed in this paper. The main purpose of this study is to show that Immersion and Invariance (I & I) approach can be used to design a nonlinear observer for disturbance estimation and demonstrate its effectiveness considering a nonlinear system with an unstable equilibrium point, namely Inverted-Pendulum system, by utilizing the estimated values in backstepping control design. All designs are directly performed in discrete-time domain to obtain directly implementable observer and controller in discrete processors with superior performance compared to emulators. The Inverted-Pendulum system is not in strict feedback form therefore backstepping procedure cannot be directly applied. In order to enable backstepping construction, firstly a partial feedback linearization is performed and afterwards a novel discrete-time coordinate transformation is proposed. Prior to the construction of partial feedback linearizing and backstepping controller, a nonlinear disturbance estimator design is proposed with Immersion and Invariance approach. The estimated disturbance values used in the partial feedback linearization and construction of the backstepping controller. The global asymptotic stability of the estimator and local asymptotic stability of overall closed loop system are proved in the sense of Lyapunov. Performance of proposed direct discrete-time backstepping control with discrete I & I observer is compared with a backstepping sliding mode controller with another nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) by simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1068-1076
Number of pages9
JournalTransactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2019.


  • discrete-time backstepping control
  • disturbance estimation
  • immersion and invariance
  • Inverted-Pendulum
  • partial feedback linearization


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