Direct determination of influence lines and surfaces by F.E.M.

Engin Orakdöǧen*, Konuralp Girgin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, element loading matrices are defined for static application of classical Müller-Breslau principle to finite element method. The loading matrices are derived from existing element matrices using Betti's law and known governing equations of F.E.M. Thus, the ordinates of influence lines and influence surfaces may be easily obtained from structural analysis for the loading matrices derived from governing equations, instead of through introduced unit force or displacement techniques. An algorithm for a computer program and comparative numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the procedure for determination of influence line and surface ordinates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-292
Number of pages14
JournalStructural Engineering and Mechanics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2005


  • Betti's law
  • Finite element method
  • Influence lines
  • Influence surfaces
  • Müller-Breslau principle


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