Direct 3D Printing of Strain Sensors onto 3D Woven Orthogonal Composite Structures: Evaluating Two Distinct Approaches for Sensor Performance

Merve Karabal, Melisa Dincer, Dilan Arslan, Ramazan Yuksel, Zeynep Nur Akyazici, Alptekin Yıldız, Hulya Cebeci

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


In industries relying on the structural integrity of composites, such as aerospace, integration of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) sensors within Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems emerges as a pivotal strategy for real-time damage detection and assessment. The versatility of the CNTs extends to various surfaces, including textiles and plastics, through different manufacturing techniques. This study introduces a novel sensor system for SHM applications, using conductive patterns of CNT-reinforced high-performance polymers integrated into 3D orthogonal woven fabrics (3D-ORT). The 3D-ORT fabrics woven with E-glass fibers served as a substrate for the sensors. Two distinct approaches for sensor integration were explored: direct 3D printing onto 3D-ORT composites and printing onto 3D-ORT fabric, followed by composite production through vacuum infusion process. The former approach faced challenges in interfacial bonding, while the latter showed robust adhesion and integration. Piezoresistive behavior analysis revealed a correlation between CNT concentration and strain-induced changes in electrical resistance. In addition, the study investigated the impact of sensor length on electrical resistance, highlighting a direct relationship between length and resistance sensitivity. The potential of this approach lies in its ability to create a piezoresistive self-sensing system with effective stress transfer for sensitive strain and pressure measurement, particularly in SHM applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024
PublisherAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA
ISBN (Print)9781624107115
Publication statusPublished - 2024
EventAIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024 - Orlando, United States
Duration: 8 Jan 202412 Jan 2024

Publication series

NameAIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024


ConferenceAIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.


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