Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Emulsification and Encapsulation of Echium Oil by Response Surface Methodology

Hamdy A. Zahran, Gizem Catalkaya, Hande Yenipazar, Esra Capanoglu, Neşe Şahin-Yeşilçubuk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Echium oil (EO) contains substantial amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, which are important because of their benefits to human health. However, they are prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum conditions of microencapsulation of EO using spray drying by applying the response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite circumscribed design (CCC) was employed with a ratio of maltodextrin (MD):EmCap modified starch (MS) (80-90%, w/w), oil concentration (15-25%, w/w), and homogenization speed (5-15 × 103 rpm) as independent variables affecting droplet size (μm) and viscosity (Pa·s), which were chosen as responses for the emulsification process. The results revealed that the emulsion conditions containing MD:MS (89.7%:10.3%, w/w), oil concentration of (16.0%), and homogenization speed at (14.8 × 103 rpm) were found to be the optimum conditions. Furthermore, for encapsulation, CCC was employed with inlet temperature of 140-180 °C, air flow of 20-30%, and pump rates of 15-25% as independent variables. Total yield (%) and encapsulation efficiency (%) were chosen as responses for the encapsulation process. On the other hand, optimum conditions for encapsulation were as follows: inlet temperature of 140 °C, airflow rate of (30%) 0.439 m3/h, pump rate of (15%) 4.5 mL/min with respect to selected responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28249-28257
Number of pages9
JournalACS Omega
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.


Hamdy A. Zahran acknowledges the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), BIDEB 2221- Fellowship program for Visiting Scientists and Scientists on Sabbatical Leave for the fellowship. We acknowledge Cargill Co., Turkey, for kindly providing modified starch and maltodextrin for this study.

FundersFunder number
Cargill Co.
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu


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