Determinants of internet adoption in Turkey and the need for a more coherent vision on information and communication technologies policy

Deniz Ece Dalgic-Tetikol*, Bulent Guloglu, Emin Köksal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Digital transformation offers tremendous opportunities for emerging economies like Turkey. However, the full potential of digital advancements can only be achieved with the widespread adoption of digital technologies, which depends on the capable delivery of information and communication technologies (ICT) and their effective usability. Despite increased Internet penetration rates in Turkey in recent years, disparities in Internet adoption continue to persist. This study investigates whether and to what extent key demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with the first-level digital divide in Turkey. The phenomenon is discussed in three aspects: device access, Internet access, and Internet use. The findings demonstrate that the vast majority of people in Turkey have Internet-enabled devices, mainly smartphones. Age, income, and education are significant predictors of Internet access. However, even when access is available, large disparities exist among gender, age, income, education, and employment groups in terms of Internet use. Moreover, our findings reveal significant regional differences in both Internet access and use. The results point to the need for a more coherent vision on ICT policies such that the need for demand-side programs are intended to stimulate broadband adoption widely by those groups. This paper provides useful pointers that can facilitate further academic research and structural decisions among policy-makers, by emphasizing the high-priority target groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-336
Number of pages26
JournalCompetition and Regulation in Network Industries
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

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© The Author(s) 2022.


  • digital divide
  • information and communication technology policy
  • internet access
  • Internet adoption
  • internet use
  • Turkey


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