Design of Inclined-Form Buildings: Architectural and Structural Considerations

Yigit Erkoç*, Necdet Torunbalcı

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The prevalence of contemporary architectural designs that feature inclined-form buildings continues to rise, propelled by advances in analytical and drawing techniques, material technology, and construction methods. When viewed from the outside, buildings that make a certain angle to the ground and whose floor plans are horizontally offset could be defined as inclined-form buildings. Although these buildings present unique design opportunities, they present considerable challenges. This study presents an overview of the geometric features and parameters that define inclined buildings, which explores their architectural merits and drawbacks. A thorough analysis of the impact of inclined forms on the structural system is conducted, which encompasses positive and negative effects. Various types of structural systems are exemplified by case studies that showcase buildings with inclined forms. This study delves into the challenges that are encountered during the design and construction of these buildings and scrutinizes the solutions that are devised and implemented by designers. The applicability and sustainability of inclined buildings are considered in compliance with contemporary regulations, which offer a comprehensive evaluation. Therefore, this study aims to provide valuable insights for architects, engineers, and contractors who are involved in the design and execution of inclined buildings, which examines the diverse aspects of their structural behavior and construction processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number03124003
JournalJournal of Architectural Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 American Society of Civil Engineers.


  • Architectural design
  • Contemporary buildings
  • Inclined buildings
  • Inclined columns
  • Seismic behavior
  • Structural design


Dive into the research topics of 'Design of Inclined-Form Buildings: Architectural and Structural Considerations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this