Cosmological implications of scale-independent energy-momentum squared gravity: Pseudo nonminimal interactions in dark matter and relativistic relics

Özgür Akarsu, Nihan Katlrcl, Suresh Kumar, Rafael C. Nunes, M. Sami

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38 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we introduce a scale-independent energy-momentum squared gravity (EMSG) that allows different gravitational couplings for different types of sources, which may lead to scenarios with many interesting applications/implications in cosmology. In the present study, to begin with, we study a modification of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, where photons and baryons couple to the spacetime as in general relativity, while the cold dark matter and relativistic relics (neutrinos and any other relativistic relics) couple to the spacetime in accordance with EMSG. This scenario induces pseudo nonminimal interactions on these components, leading to modification at both the background and perturbative levels. A consequence of this scenario is that the dimensionless free parameter of the theory may induce direct changes on the effective number of the relativistic species, without the need to introduce new extra species. In order to quantify the observational consequences of the cosmological scenario, we use the cosmic microwave background Planck data (temperature, polarization, and lensing power spectrum) and baryonic acoustic oscillations data. We find that the free model parameter is too small to induce statistically significant corrections on the ΛCDM model due to EMSG. We deduce that the model presented here is quite rich with promising cosmological applications/implications that deserve further investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number063522
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 19 Sept 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Physical Society.


Ö. A. acknowledges the support by the Science Academy in scheme of the Distinguished Young Scientist Award (BAGEP). N. K. acknowledges the postdoctoral research support she is receiving from the Istanbul Technical University. S. K. gratefully acknowledges the support from SERB-DST Project No. EMR/2016/000258 and the warm hospitality and research facilities provided by the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, India, where a part of this work was carried out.

FundersFunder number
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi
Bilim Akademisi


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