Composition and phase analysis on glazed tiles of southeast anatolia: Production process identification

Ömer Dabanlı*, Dursun Yıldız, Murat Bayazit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The analytical characterization of cultural heritage materials has a great importance in terms of gaining the scientific knowledge which provides guidance for conservation applications covering the re-integration and re-production processes needed in protection. In this study, the glazed tile samples of a 15th century monument located in southeast Anatolia are investigated and a comprehensive archaeometric data for restoration and conservation is created. XRF and EDX were used to reveal the chemical composition of tile bodies and particularly the glazes. SEM and petrography analyses were employed to examine the micro and macro structural features of the bodies, respectively. Samples were exposed to X-ray diffraction for characterization of the mineral/phase contents. Furthermore, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry were the complementary methods. The mineralogical content of the samples suggested a firing temperature of ca 850-900oC. The chemical composition of the tile fabrics indicated use of calcareous raw materials due to relatively high CaO content. It was deduced that the alkaline and lead oxides were the main components of the glazes, with low lead oxide (˂5 wt.%) for the samples PS-2, PS-4, PS-5 and PS-6. It was also seen that the blue/green turquoise colors were obtained with copper, whereas blue itself was due to cobalt. Tin was occasionally detected in chemical composition of some glazed surfaces, and its presence was mostly attributed to the purpose of gaining opaqueness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalMediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021.

Funding

We thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This work was supported by the “Di-yarbakır Parlı Safa Mosque Tile Analysis Project” funded by Aykaç Construction within the restoration implementations, so the authors gratefully thank Şahabettin Ayata (Aykaç Construction Ltd. Şti., Diyarbakır), the employees/officials of Diyarbakır Regional Directorate of Foundations (VGM, Turkey) for their support and for the permissions to the use of the tile samples, analysis data, photographs, drawings and documents from the archives. The authors would like to thank the laboratories for their support and technical cooperation; FSMVÜ Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Heritage (KURAM; SEM-EDX, XRD, petrography), Ankara University Geoscience Application and Research Center (YEBİM; petrography), Dicle University Science and Technology Application and Research Center (DÜBTAM; FTIR, TG-DTA), and Batman University Institute of Science Department of Archaeometry (portable XRF). Finally, authors thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali Akın Akyol (Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University), Prof. Dr. Yusuf Kağan Kadıoğlu (Ankara University), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mahmut Aydın (Batman University), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Güleç, Dr. Kıymet Deniz (Ankara University), Gürbüz Taşkıran (Batman University) and Gülşen Albuz Geren (Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University) for their contribution. This paper covers the data obtained from “Diyarbakır Parlı Safa Mosque Tile Analysis Project” funded by Aykaç Construction (prepared by Dabanlı et al., 2018), and from the master thesis of Dursun Yıldız (submitted to Batman University, Institute of Science, Department of Archaeometry, 2019). We thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This work was supported by the ?Diyarbak?r Parl? Safa Mosque Tile Analysis Project? funded by Ayka? Construction within the restoration implementations, so the authors gratefully thank ?ahabettin Ayata (Ayka? Construction Ltd. ?ti., Diyarbak?r), the employees/officials of Diyarbak?r Regional Directorate of Foundations (VGM, Turkey) for their support and for the permissions to the use of the tile samples, analysis data, photographs, drawings and documents from the archives. The authors would like to thank the laboratories for their support and technical cooperation; FSMV? Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Heritage (KURAM; SEM-EDX, XRD, petrography), Ankara University Geoscience Application and Research Center (YEB?M; petrography), Dicle University Science and Technology Application and Research Center (D?BTAM; FTIR, TG-DTA), and Batman University Institute of Science Department of Archaeometry (portable XRF). Finally, authors thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali Ak?n Akyol (Ankara Hac? Bayram Veli University), Prof. Dr. Yusuf Ka?an Kad?o?lu (Ankara University), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mahmut Ayd?n (Batman University), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet G?le?, Dr. K?ymet Deniz (Ankara Uni-versity), G?rb?z Ta?k?ran (Batman University) and G?l?en Albuz Geren (Ankara Hac? Bayram Veli Univer-sity) for their contribution. This paper covers the data obtained from ?Diyarbak?r Parl? Safa Mosque Tile Analysis Project? funded by Ayka? Construction (prepared by Dabanl? et al., 2018), and from the master thesis of Dursun Y?ld?z (submitted to Batman University, Institute of Science, Department of Archaeometry, 2019).

FundersFunder number
Ankara University Geoscience Application and Research Center
Aykaç Construction
Batman University Institute of Science Department of Archaeometry
Dicle University Science and Technology Application and Research Center
G?l?en Albuz Geren
SEM-EDX
Ankara Universitesi
Ajman University

    Keywords

    • Anatolia
    • Archaeometry
    • Composition
    • Cultural heritage
    • Diyarbakır
    • Glazed tile
    • Phase iden-tification
    • Tile production

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