Coastal Landforms and Landscapes of Turkey

Attila Çiner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The Turkish Peninsula is delimited by three surrounding seas (Mediterranean, Aegean and Black seas) and one inland sea (Sea of Marmara). Each of them has its own typical coastal geomorphology in terms of variation of the oceanographic, geological and atmospheric conditions. The Black Sea coast is a typical Pacific-type coast in terms of mountain ranges that run parallel to shorelines, which result in the formation of linear and high cliffs only cut by Sakarya, Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak deltas. The Mediterranean coast also exhibits shoreline-parallel mountain ranges. However, contrary to the Black Sea coastline, the basement rocks are limestone-dominated and therefore karstic processes are decisive in the shaping of coastal morphology. The best example is the Antalya coast where underground rivers fed by the Taurides Mountains, formed travertine terraces. Several erosional and depositional coastal landscapes are represented by steep cliffs, marine terraces, beachrocks, wave-cut platforms and notches. Marine terraces uplifted to several 10s of metres also record relative sea-level changes that occurred since the mid-late Pleistocene. The pattern of the Aegean coast of Turkey is mainly defined by E–W-oriented horsts and grabens as a result of ongoing extension in the region. This tectonic setting facilitated the formation of deltas along the Aegean coastline, where ancient cities and harbours were mainly built during Hellenistic and Roman times. As an inland sea, the Sea of Marmara is developed along the middle and northern strands of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, where uplifted marine terraces are observed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWorld Geomorphological Landscapes
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameWorld Geomorphological Landscapes
ISSN (Print)2213-2090
ISSN (Electronic)2213-2104

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Beaches
  • Beachrocks
  • Coastline
  • Deltas
  • Holocene
  • Notches
  • Wave-cut platforms


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