Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

Aysel T. Atimtay*, Burçak Kaynak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, SO2, NOX and total hydrocarbons (CmHn) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (CmHn) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-197
Number of pages15
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2008
Externally publishedYes


The financial support provided to this project by the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council-TUBITAK (Project Code: MISAG-195) is greatly appreciated. Assist. Prof. Dr. H. Topal's help from Gazi University in providing the coal samples and in some technical details is greatly acknowledged.

FundersFunder number
Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council-TUBITAKMISAG-195


    • Biomass combustion
    • Co-combustion of fruit stones with coal
    • Fluidized bed combustion (FBC)
    • Renewable energy


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