Caffeine-loaded nano/micro-carriers: Techniques, bioavailability, and applications

Rezvan Shaddel*, Safoura Akbari-Alavijeh, Ilaria Cacciotti, Shima Yousefi, Merve Tomas, Esra Capanoglu, Ozgur Tarhan, Ali Rashidinejad, Atefe Rezaei, Mohammed Bhia, Seid Mahdi Jafari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Caffeine, as one of the most consumed bioactive compounds globally, has gained considerable attention during the last years. Considering the bitter taste and adverse effects of high levels of caffeine consumption, it is crucial to apply a strategy for masking the caffeine’s bitter taste and facilitating its programmable deliverance within a long time. Other operational parameters such as food processing parameters, exposure to sunlight and oxygen, and gastrointestinal digestion could also degrade the phenolic compounds in general and caffeine in special. To overcome these challenges, various nano/micro-platforms have been fabricated, including lipid-based (e.g., nanoliposomal vehicles; nanoemulsions, double emulsions, Pickering emulsions; microemulsions; niosomal vehicles; solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers), as well as biopolymeric (e.g., nanoparticles; hydrogels, organogels, oleogels; nanofibers and nanotubes; protein-polysaccharide nanocomplexes, conjugates; cyclodextrin inclusion complexes) and inorganic (e.g., gold and silica nanoparticles) nano/micro-structures. In this review, the findings on various caffeine-loaded nano/micro-carriers and their potential applications in functional food products/supplements will be discussed. Also, the controlled release and bioavailability of encapsulated caffeine will be given, and finally, the toxicity and safety of encapsulated caffeine will be presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4940-4965
Number of pages26
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2024

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  • Bioavailability
  • caffeine
  • encapsulation
  • functional foods
  • nano/micro-delivery systems


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