Arc-flash hazard calculations in a electrical distribution system with distributed generation for electrical safety audit

Berkay Gündüz, Burak Dindar, Ömer Gül*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Considering the limited fossil fuel reserves and the damage they cause to the environment, new searches have been made, and distributed generation facilities established in areas close to consumption areas which generate electricity with renewable energy sources have emerged. Connecting distributed generation plants; It has facilitated voltage control, reduced transmission losses and positively affected the supply continuity, however, their effects on short circuit currents, load flows and arc flash energies can cause serious problems if they are not carefully analyzed. In this study, a real distribution feeder system of Boğaziçi Distribution Company has been modeled in ETAP. Arc flash analyzes are carried out according to Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1584 for the conditions where radial operation, parallel lines and transformers are active in the modeled distribution feeder and the Distributed Generation Plants are connected directly as wind turbine or via inverter as solar panel. Based on the analyzes, it has been observed that the distributed generation plants integrated into the topology cause remarkable increases in arc flash parameters and changes in risk categories. By choosing the wind turbine integration case as an example, overcurrent protection coordination with standard characteristics is provided and differential protection solutions are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-516
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Safety and Security Engineering
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

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  • Arc flash
  • Distributed generation
  • Electricity distribution
  • Grid topology
  • PPE
  • Protection coordination


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