Applications on agricultural and forest waste adsorbents for the removal of lead (II) from contaminated waters

Cafer Saka*, Ömer Şahin, Mehmet Maşuk Küçük

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

131 Citations (Scopus)


At present, there is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available materials for the adsorption of heavy metals. The major advantages of adsorption technologies are its effectiveness in reducing the concentration of heavy metal ions to very low levels and the use of inexpensive adsorbent materials. In this review, agricultural and forest waste adsorbents were used to remove Pb 2+ ions in wastewater treatment, and their technical feasibilities were reviewed in studies mainly from 2000 to 2010. They all were compared with each other by metal binding capacities, metal removal performances, sorbent dose, optimum pH, temperature, initial concentration and contact time. Although commercial activated carbon is widely used in wastewater treatment applications, it has high costs. The use of agricultural by-products as adsorbent material to purify heavy metal contaminated water has become increasingly popular through the past decade because they are less expensive, biodegradable, abundant and efficient. Instead of activated carbon, this study was focused on the inexpensive materials such as agricultural and forest waste. It was shown that these alternative adsorbents had sufficient binding capacity to remove Pb 2+ ions from wastewater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-394
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Adsorbents
  • Adsorption
  • Agricultural wastes
  • Forest wastes
  • Lead


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