Analysis of the summer thermal comfort indices in İstanbul

Merve Yılmaz, Yiğitalp Kara*, Hüseyin Toros, Selahattin İncecik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thermal indices and thermal comfort maps have great importance in developing health-minded climate action strategies and livable urban layouts. Especially in cities where vulnerability to heatwaves is high, it is necessary to detect the most appropriate indicators for the regional characteristics and action planning with respect to thermal comfort. The aim of the study is to examine thermal indices as indicators of regional climate characteristics by relating to meteorological parameters and spatial features. Atmospheric variables including air temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and relative humidity data were obtained from 30 meteorological stations located in districts having different climatic features. Heat stress levels for apparent temperature (AT), heat index (HI), wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), physiological equivalent temperature (PET), universal thermal climate index (UTCI), and perceived temperature (PT) indices were calculated and associated with meteorological parameters. Thermal comfort maps have been created with the daily mean and maximum values of all indices. As a result, the meteorological parameters with the strongest correlation with all thermal indices are air temperature (Ta) with r = 0.89 ± 0.01 and mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) with r = 0.75 ± 0.16. The differences in thermal stress levels over the city have been distinctively observed in the ATmax, PETmax, and PTmax maps, which are generated by the daily maximum values of the indices. Çatalca, where forests cover large areas compared to highly urbanized districts, has the lowest heat stress defined by all indices.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Biometeorology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


  • Mediterranean region
  • Outdoor thermal comfort
  • Regional biometeorology
  • Summer heat stress
  • Thermal indices
  • Urban microclimate


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