Analysis of air pollutants in Kagithane valley and Istanbul Metropolitan Area

Bahtiyar Efe*, Yaşar Burak Öztaner, Ali Deniz, Alper Unal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Air pollution in mega cities becomes an important environmental problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variability of air pollutants of megacity Istanbul both in space and time for the period of 2010–2013. Monthly and hourly averages of PM10, SO2, NOX, and CO monitored by 11 stations were analyzed. Cluster analyses were performed for each pollutant to quantify similarities or dissimilarities of air quality monitoring stations (AQS) within the city. The details of Kagithane AQS which has unfavorable conditions for air pollution were also examined. Meteorological data (temperature, wind speed, and wind direction) of Kagithane AQS were assessed to determine potential source locations and to examine the seasonal variation. Kagithane AQS was found to have the highest PM10, SO2, and CO values in hourly and monthly analyses while Besiktas and Aksaray AQS were evaluated to have the highest NOX values. Cluster analyses for PM10, CO, and SO2 showed that Kagithane AQS falls into a detached cluster. Besiktas and Kagithane AQS, together, split up from other stations for NOX clustering. PM10, SO2, NOX, and CO measurements of Kagithane AQS showed seasonality. PM10 was at lower bound in winter and fall while it was highest in spring in Kagithane AQS. Besides, averages of SO2 and NOX in winter were higher than in summer measurements. Average CO concentration showed the highest value in winter compared to other seasons. In detailed analysis for Kagithane AQS, PM10 values increased when the wind direction was north (N). Higher SO2 values were found when the wind direction was southerly, where the Bayrampasa Industrial Zone is located. NOX and CO values indicated that higher concentrations are monitored when the wind direction is northerly. Potential sources for NOX and CO could be evaluated as the Transit European Motorway (TEM) and Hasdal-Okmeydani junction which is located at north of Kagithane.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1027-1041
Number of pages15
JournalAir Quality, Atmosphere and Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.


The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, project no: 112Y319), and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality for air quality data and Sarah Balkissoon for language editing. This work is funded by the Turkish Science Foundation (TUBITAK) with the project number 112Y319.

FundersFunder number
Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
Turkish Science Foundation
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu112Y319


    • Air quality
    • Cluster analysis
    • Istanbul
    • Source appointment


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