An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part I: Sea ice and solid freshwater

Qiang Wang*, Mehmet Ilicak, Rüdiger Gerdes, Helge Drange, Yevgeny Aksenov, David A. Bailey, Mats Bentsen, Arne Biastoch, Alexandra Bozec, Claus Böning, Christophe Cassou, Eric Chassignet, Andrew C. Coward, Beth Curry, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Sergey Danilov, Elodie Fernandez, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Yosuke Fujii, Stephen M. GriffiesDoroteaciro Iovino, Alexandra Jahn, Thomas Jung, William G. Large, Craig Lee, Camille Lique, Jianhua Lu, Simona Masina, A. J.George Nurser, Benjamin Rabe, Christina Roth, David Salas y Mélia, Bonita L. Samuels, Paul Spence, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Sophie Valcke, Aurore Voldoire, Xuezhu Wang, Steve G. Yeager

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


The Arctic Ocean simulated in fourteen global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE II) is analyzed. The focus is on the Arctic sea ice extent, the solid freshwater (FW) sources and solid freshwater content (FWC). Available observations are used for model evaluation. The variability of sea ice extent and solid FW budget is more consistently reproduced than their mean state in the models. The descending trend of September sea ice extent is well simulated in terms of the model ensemble mean. Models overestimating sea ice thickness tend to underestimate the descending trend of September sea ice extent. The models underestimate the observed sea ice thinning trend by a factor of two. When averaged on decadal time scales, the variation of Arctic solid FWC is contributed by those of both sea ice production and sea ice transport, which are out of phase in time. The solid FWC decreased in the recent decades, caused mainly by the reduction in sea ice thickness. The models did not simulate the acceleration of sea ice thickness decline, leading to an underestimation of solid FWC trend after 2000. The common model behavior, including the tendency to underestimate the trend of sea ice thickness and March sea ice extent, remains to be improved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-132
Number of pages23
JournalOcean Modelling
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


FundersFunder number
Natural Environment Research CouncilNE/I028947/1, noc010010, NE/I029633/1


    • Arctic Ocean
    • CORE II atmospheric forcing
    • Freshwater
    • Sea ice


    Dive into the research topics of 'An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part I: Sea ice and solid freshwater'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this