## Abstract

A parallel large-scale unstructured finite volume algorithm based on arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) formulation has been developed in order to investigate Drosophila flight. The numerical algorithm based on side-centered finite volume method where the velocity vector components are defined at the mid-point of each cell face while the pressure is defined at the element centroid. The present arrangement of the primitive variables leads to a stable numerical scheme and it does not require any ad-hoc modifications in order to enhance pressure coupling. The continuity equation is satisfied within each element exactly and the summation of the continuity equations can be exactly reduced to the domain boundary, which is important for the global mass conservation. A special attention is also given to satisfy the geometric conservation law (GCL) at discrete level. The interpolation method for the convective fluxes is based on either the least square interpolation or the divergence-free constrained linear reconstruction. The mesh deformation is achieved by using an algebraic approach based on the minimum distance function at each time level while avoiding remeshing in order to enhance numerical robustness. For the algebraic solution of the resulting large-scale equations, a matrix factorization is introduced similar to that of the projection method for the whole coupled system and we use two-cycle of BoomerAMG solver for the scaled discrete Laplacian provided by the HYPRE library, a high performance preconditioning package developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which we access through the PETSc library. The present numerical algorithm is initially validated for the Kovasznay flow, the 2D/3D lid-driven cavity flow problem, the flow past an oscillating circular cylinder in a channel and the flow induced by an oscillating sphere in a cubic cavity. Then the numerical algorithm is applied to the numerical simulation of flow field around a pair of flapping Drosophila wing in hover flight. The computed wake structures and forces are in accord with the the experimental observations in the literature.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | ECCOMAS 2012 - European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, e-Book Full Papers |

Pages | 3906-3925 |

Number of pages | 20 |

Publication status | Published - 2012 |

Event | 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, ECCOMAS 2012 - Vienna, Austria Duration: 10 Sept 2012 → 14 Sept 2012 |

### Publication series

Name | ECCOMAS 2012 - European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, e-Book Full Papers |
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### Conference

Conference | 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, ECCOMAS 2012 |
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Country/Territory | Austria |

City | Vienna |

Period | 10/09/12 → 14/09/12 |

## Keywords

- ALE methods
- Coupled iterative solvers
- Incompressible viscous flow
- Insect flight
- Large-scale computations
- Unstructured finite volume