## Abstract

In this study, a boundary integral equation method is proposed for investigating acoustic pressure radiation from a sphere pulsating near a free surface or an impedance plane. The half-space and free-space problems are investigated for the acoustic radiation of pulsating sphere. The effects of free surface and impedance boundaries are introduced into the mathematical model by employing three different half-space Green’s functions, respectively. These Green’s functions are derived, respectively, using the single image-source method, multiple equivalent-source method, and complex equivalent-source method. Green’s functions are implemented into the boundary element (BE) formulation. The surface of the pulsating sphere is discretized with linear and quadratic BEs, and the Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation (CHIEF) is employed to overcome the non-uniqueness problem. Four different case studies are considered for the sphere pulsating near a free surface or an impedance plane. The first case study involves the sphere pulsating near a free surface (perfectly reflective) and the single image-source method is used in the boundary element method (BEM) formulation. In the second case study, the sphere is assumed as pulsating near a perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing impedance planes, respectively. The multiple equivalent-source method is employed for the perfectly reflecting plane, but the multiple equivalent-source method and complex equivalent-source methods for the perfectly absorbing plane. The third case study involves a general impedance plane, and all the methods are employed, respectively, in the BE formulation. The final case study assumes a general impedance plane forming a perpendicular incidence and the complex equivalent-source method is used in this particular case. It is observed that there is a very good comparison between the results obtained from all these methods.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1913-1929 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids |

Volume | 27 |

Issue number | 10 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Oct 2022 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© The Author(s) 2022.

## Keywords

- Acoustic radiation
- boundary element method
- Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation method
- half-space Green’s functions
- Helmholtz integral equation