A user-centered side silhouette generation system for sedan cars based on shape templates

Erkan Gunpinar*, Salih Ertug Ovur, Serkan Gunpinar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


A tool for the generation of side silhouettes for sedan cars is developed in this work; this enables ordinary people to produce personalized silhouettes that they prefer. Multiple silhouettes are collected from different car brands and analyzed in an off-line step. The silhouette is partitioned into nine characteristic lines, each of which is represented by either quadratic or cubic Bezier curves. Furthermore, geometric properties, such as geometric constraints and lower/upper bounds for the characteristic line dimensions, are determined. Next, a characteristic line is sampled via a spatial simulated annealing approach, while minimizing the Audze–Eglais potential energy between the sampled characteristic lines generated. These samples are called line templates or shape templates. A car side silhouette is encoded by a sequence of parameters, such as characteristic line lengths and heights and line template indices (i.e., 21 parameters in total). Once the values for these parameters are set, the silhouette can be generated. A user interface is provided for users to develop personalized car side silhouettes. According to the user study performed in this work, the developed tool enables users to obtain more desired/preferred silhouette(s) compared to those obtained using an interactive genetic algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)683-723
Number of pages41
JournalOptimization and Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


This study was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Project Number: 315M077). Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Professor Ralph Martin for his helpful remarks, the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey for supporting this research (Project Number: 315M077) and the RWTH Computer Graphics Group for making the OpenFlipper framework available.

FundersFunder number
RWTH Computer Graphics
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu315M077


    • Car side silhouette
    • Computer-aided design
    • Shape sampling
    • Shape templates
    • User-centered design


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