A slim based approach for human error probability of steel scrap cargo operations as a critical process in the maritime sector

Gizem Kayisoglu*, Fırat Bolat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The transportation of steel scrap cargoes in global trade has been increasing over the years. According to the researches, the demand of steel scrap materials will be more than double in the late 21st century whereby forecasting of steel scrap production and so steel scrap cargo operations will also evenly rise in ports. Increasing steel scrap cargo operations will bring along several undesirable accidents and injuries. Investigations show that the most paramount reason for these incidents or accidents related with steel scrap cargo operations in maritime sector is human error. In this sense, it is aimed to identify human error probabilities (HEPs) for steel scrap cargo operation that is performed frequently in maritime sector, especially in bulk carrier vessels. In this study, Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM), which is one of the methods for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), is used to determine HEPs in steel scrap cargo operations due to the limited data availability on this topic. Accordingly, the most common error modes that are determined via detailed literature review are ranked in accordance with HEP values. It is put forward which and how much error mode is affected from Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) such as education, supervision, environmental condition, equipment and tool condition, and experience mostly. According to the analysis results, “the falling piece of steel scrap on the deck during steel scrap loading or unloading operation” has the most probability occurrence. Consequently, it is understood that training and experience factors are critically important for preventing errors in steel scrap cargo operation in overall view. On the other hand, environmental condition, supervision, and equipment and tool condition factors include the prominent level of significance to bring down the probability of accruing of some specific errors. Accordingly, the proposed approach not only make a theory-based contribution to the maritime literature, but also to active contribution to the sector involving P&I Clubs, shipping companies, and classification societies toward focusing point for minimizing the accidents about steel scrap cargo operations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-30
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Faculty of Maritime Studies Rijeka, 2022.


  • Human error
  • Human reliability analysis
  • Maritime
  • Steel scrap cargo operation
  • Success likelihood index


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