A Microporous Bifunctional Electrochromic Energy-Storage Polymer of Thiophene, Triphenylamine, and Thienothiophene

Sema Topal, Sebahat Topal, Garen Suna, Belkıs Ustamehmetoğlu, Turan Ozturk, Esma Sezer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The novel monomer, 4-(2-(4-(bis(4-(thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)amino)phenyl)-5-(thiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-3-yl)benzonitrile, is synthesized by applying Suzuki coupling reaction and electropolymerized directly onto indium tin oxide coated glass electrode surface to obtain a conjugated microporous polymer of [Th3CNTT–TPA] (P[Th3CNTT–TPA]). The morphology and structure of the polymer film are characterized by atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and UV–visible spectroscopies. Electrochemical properties are studied using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge–discharge, and chronoamperometric measurements. Its gravimetric capacity and capacitance values are measured to be 65 and 235 F g−1 at a current density of 3 A g−1, respectively. It shows high energy and power densities of 65 and 32.5 kWh kg−1, respectively, and exhibits high coloration efficiency of 513 C−1 cm2 in visible region, switching between yellow and grey colors. Three different electrochromic–supercapacitor devices, that is, one symmetrical (energy storage device (ESD)1) and two asymmetrical, using poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophen) (ESD2) and poly(3,4-propylenedioxypyrrole) (ESD3) as counter electrodes, are fabricated. The asymmetrical device, ESD3, demonstrats better capacity and stability. Regarding the cyclic stability and electrochromic-energy-storage properties, P[Th3CNTT–TPA] can be considered as a good candidate for multifunctional applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300015
JournalEnergy Technology
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

Funding

The authors thank the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for grants to Sebahat T. and Sema T. (TUBITAK BIDEB 2211A), and the Higher Education Council of Turkey (YOK) (Ph.D., 100/2000 YOK) for grants to Sebahat T. In addition, the authors would like to thank Istanbul Technical University Scientific Research Projects (Project no. 42325) for their financial support. We are indebted to National Center for High Performance Computing (UHeM) under (grant nos. 4007702020 and 4009542021) for the computational chemistry studies. Authors also thank Assos. Prof. Dr. Erman Karakuş for SEM measurements. The authors thank the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for grants to Sebahat T. and Sema T. (TUBITAK BIDEB 2211A), and the Higher Education Council of Turkey (YOK) (Ph.D., 100/2000 YOK) for grants to Sebahat T. In addition, the authors would like to thank Istanbul Technical University Scientific Research Projects (Project no. 42325) for their financial support. We are indebted to National Center for High Performance Computing (UHeM) under (grant nos. 4007702020 and 4009542021) for the computational chemistry studies. Authors also thank Assos. Prof. Dr. Erman Karakuş for SEM measurements.

FundersFunder number
Higher Education Council of Turkey100/2000 YOK
Ulusal Yüksek Başarımlı Hesaplama Merkezi, Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi4009542021, 4007702020
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma KurumuBIDEB 2211A
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi42325
Sheikh Bahaei National High Performance Computing Center, Isfahan University of Technology

    Keywords

    • electrochromic materials
    • energy storage
    • thienothiophene
    • thiophene
    • triphenylamine

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