A history of Pistacia lentiscus and Pinus brutia trees and their ecological changes in the Güllük Bay (Muğla, SW Turkey) during the last 400 years

Demet Biltekin*, Georg Schwamborn, Kürşad Kadir Eriş, Dursun Acar, Bikem Ekberzade, Zahra Hashemi, Nurettin Yakupoğlu, Ali Mohammadi, Ömer Yetemen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, we present pollen records together with a multiproxy analysis from a sediment core collected from the Güllük Bay (Bargilya Cove, Muğla, SW Turkey), covering the last 400 years. Pistachio shrubland was occupying around the Güllük Bay between 1613 and 1741 AD. However, after 1741 AD, the vegetation canopy suddenly changed and Turkish pine (Pinus brutia) was established. This supports that the main factor affecting the expansion of Pistacia lentiscus was precipitation rather than temperature after 1741 AD. This change is also indicated by high Sr-Ca values, reflecting arid conditions. Two anthropogenic phases developed in the region. The first phase is marked by Olea europeae between 1613 and 1789 AD. The second is characterized by Plantago, Caryophyllaceae, Cerelia, Rumex, and Sanguisorba minor type suggesting pastoralism and agricultural activities between 1789 and 1964 AD. Macrofaunal communities are also indicative of environmental changes. Abra ovata, Cerastoderma glaucum, Bittium reticulatum, and Skenea catenoides were first settlers between 1572 and 1643 AD. The prominent presence of lagoonal species Abra ovata and Hydrobia ventrosa indicates a lagoonal depositional environment in 1799-1948 AD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2
Pages (from-to)438-451
Number of pages14
JournalTurkish Journal of Earth Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


This study has been produced benefiting from the 2232 International Fellowship for Outstanding Researchers Program of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through grant 118C329. The financial support received from TÜBİTAK does not indicate that the content of the publication is approved in a scientific sense by TÜBİTAK.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu118C329


    • PCA
    • Pollen analysis
    • XRF
    • gastropods
    • molluscs
    • paleoclimate
    • paleovegetation


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